Tag Archives: seperate classrooms

What is Inclusion?

21 Jul

Before 1975, students with disabilities were mainly educated away from their peers.  They were not given the same quality education that non-disabled students were receiving, if they were receiving any at all.  For the most part our education system was failing our children with disabilities.  The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) was the first legislation that said that all children deserve a free and appropriate education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment (LRE).  In plain language, this means that for the first time the government was recognizing the equal rights of children with disabilities to receive a quality, free education with their non-disabled peers.  While it took 15 more years until the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) would be written and real change would occur, that 1975 act was the first step toward educating all children in our country.  The idea of including students with disabilities to the greatest extent possible was born out of these federal acts and is referred to as inclusion.

Inclusion is when special education services happen while the child is in the general education classroom (not in a special education classroom). It is a philosophy that brings disabled and non-disabled students together and creates an environment of acceptance and belonging for all students.  Inclusion allows students with disabilities access to the same education as non-disabled students, while giving them the supports that they need to be successful.  Students that are in inclusion programs usually have access to more challenging and engaging curriculum.  They are also learning to be a part of their community and are teaching other students to be more accepting of other’s differences.

While the principles of inclusion are wonderful, it is not always successful.  Inclusion must be carefully implemented so that that the students that qualify for services are still getting what they need.  Teachers who teach in inclusion classrooms are taught to differentiate their instruction.  This means that all students are given instruction based on their needs.  Usually, teachers will use less whole group instruction and work with small groups of students instead. Sometimes there will be a teacher’s assistant in the room to help and at other times there will be a special educator there as well.  Some students do not benefit from total inclusion (meaning being in the general education classroom 100% of the day) because they require services that need a separate setting.   This is called partial inclusion.  I think it is safe to say that almost all students do benefit from some inclusion throughout their day.  Research has found that  students in an inclusion program generally have higher academic performance and better social skills than those not in inclusion.

While schools are obligated to educate students in the least restrictive environment (LRE) under the federal law, they sometimes do not do so.  It may be easier or cheaper for them to educate children with special needs in a separate setting.  Sometimes it is more beneficial to the child to be in a classroom or school that is designed to meet their needs .  As a parent, you may want your child educated separately for your own reasons.  Your child may want to be educated separately for their own reasons.  Your child’s team (which includes you and maybe your child- if they are old enough) will be able to best decide what placement is right for your child.  You may not agree with the majority of the team’s choice for your child.  That’s okay, you have that right.  I suggest that you research inclusion and separate settings (classrooms and schools) so that you can make an informed decision for your child.  You should also observe the two types of settings in your school district so you can see for yourself what your child’s placement will be like.  The placement of your child is a very important decision and you would serve your child best by being informed before you are asked to make a choice.

Definition of Special Education

5 Jun

Special education is individualized instruction and services given to students that have a disability or condition that prevents them from being able to do the same school work and school activities as “typical” children, so that they can reach their individual potential.   Special education is provided at no additional costs to the parents and is confidential.  

There are 7 types of disabilities that children can receive services for while at school.  These disabilities are: developmental delay, intellectual impairment, sensory impairment, hearing-vision-deaf-blind, neurological impairment, emotional impairment, communication impairment, physical impairment, health impairment, specific learning disability.

Special education is a right that is protected by a federal act called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The law protects a parents’ rights to make decisions about their child’s special education, guarantees an appropriate evaluation of your child, ensures that an individual education plan (IEP) will be written and carried out in the least restrictive environment, and outlines how parents and schools can resolve any disagreements they have. An individual education plan or IEP, is a written document that outlines what special education services, accommodations, and modifications will be given to your child.  It also states where the services will be carried out.  Some children will receive services in the classroom (inclusion), while other students will receive services outside of the classroom (pull-out services).  In some instances, students will be educated in a separate classroom or school.  However, the law says that students must be educated with their peers to the maximum extent possible.  Therefore, placing students in separate classrooms or schools is done only after serious consideration about the benefits and drawbacks of doing so.

What is LRE? (Least Restrictive Environment)

2 Jun

Text from the Massachusetts DOE/FCSP publication “A parent’s guide to Special Education”

LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT

The federal law, IDEA, mandates that students with disabilities must be educated with their non-disabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate based on the student’s needs. This is known as the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE). The Team (including the parent) determines the placement that the student needs to provide the services on the student’s IEP and the Team must choose the least restrictive environment able to provide those services. This means that the student should attend the school he or she would attend if non-disabled, unless the Team determines that the nature of the student’s disability will not allow that student to have a successful educational experience in that environment.

FAPE and LRE are closely tied together. Both federal and Massachusetts special education laws require that a Team consider appropriate education in the least restrictive environment. In order to help your child be successful, the Team must carefully consider whether supplemental aids and services and specialized instruction could make it possible for your child to be educated with non-disabled peers. If services can be appropriately provided in a less restrictive setting, the Team must choose that type of program and setting. If the student’s program requires a more restrictive setting to be successful, then the Team may consider other settings. The Team should look class by class, activity by activity, and only remove your child from the general education classrooms if, and only if, supplemental aids and services would not make it possible for the student to remain in that classroom and make effective progress.

Determination of the LRE is based on your child’s IEP, not on a diagnosis or specific disability label. This determination must be made individually and carefully. Students cannot be placed in separate or more restrictive environments only because they require modification of the curriculum. It is important to remember that Teams do not have to choose between specialized help for a student and inclusion of that student in the general education classroom; students are entitled to both. After the Team has developed the IEP and understands the needs and goals for your child, then the Team will determine the most appropriate setting for your child’s services. LRE is an integral part of the placement determination.

Separate Classrooms for Children with Special Educational Needs (Special Education Programs)

29 May

 

NOTE:  This post is intended to answer the questions of parents of children that are not cognitively impaired by a neurological problem or brain injury.  If you or your child’s school feel that they may benefit from a separate classroom or program, you may be wondering what types of programs are available to them.  Most districts have some special education programs that they run themselves.  They may also be part of an educational collaborative, where several public districts share the costs of running the sped programs.  The last resource is a privately run program that the district pays to send a student to.  The biggest caution that I have for  parents, is to ask if the district mixes students that are cognitively impaired with students that are not cognitively impaired in separate classrooms (especially if your child is not cognitively impaired).  This is not considered best educational practice mostly because these two groups have very different needs in the educational setting.  Also know that their is a difference between a cognitively impaired child and a cognitively delayed child and the districts should usually not be designing one program to serve both types of children.

Before Agreeing to a Separate Program (or Classroom):

  • Observe the program at least once (while students are present)
  • Ask the teacher questions about how the class is run, the expectations for the students, and the specialists that work with her
  • Ask if cognitively impaired students are included in the program (if your child is not cognitively impaired)
  • Ask if there will be mainstreaming during the day
  • Ask about what comes next (is the program available at the middle and high school level)
  • Make your goals for your child clear to the team (if you want them fully mainstreamed as soon as possible, let that be known)
  • Research what outside programs are available and how those programs run
  • Find out what is considered the best interventions for your child’s disability
  • Ask the district representative about other available programs (you always want to know everything that is available so you can make a good decision)

Here are three of the most common types of separate programs that both public and private institutions run for children with special educational needs:

Programs for Emotionally and/or behaviorally Impaired Students [Emotional,/Behavioral Disabled (EBD) Classrooms]

These are substantially separate classrooms for elementary, middle and high school students with social, emotional, and/or behavioral problems that prevent participation in the general education setting. The programs are designed so students develop the skills and strategies needed to take part in a full academic school day, accessing general education curriculum in the least restrictive setting. Mainstreaming and inclusion opportunities are usually provided to the maximum extent possible depending on individual student progress.  Social workers, psychologists, adjustment counselors, and behavioral consultants may work with students.  In addition to academics, students will receive stress/anger management instruction, social skill building instruction, and behavior improvement plans.  The staff will work on replacing negative behaviors with more socially acceptable behaviors.  The goal is to move these students back into the general education setting as soon as possible with a new set of skills and strategies to help them be more successful.  The environment is purposefully less stressful, more supportive, and highly structured.  Some EBDs are for students that are cognitively impaired and  the academic part of this program may be much different from the general education curriculum.

Parents should ask their school district if they include cognitively impaired and non-cognitively impaired students in the same program.  It is not considered best practices in SPED to do this and it may be a negative step for your child if they are not cognitively impaired.  If this is the case in your district, you can ask that your child be mainstreamed for academics and still receive the therapeutic aspects of the program.  You can also ask for an outside placement in a private school that is for emotionally/behaviorally impaired students that are not cognitively impaired.

Programs for Students with Language-based Disabilities [Language-Based (LB) Classrooms]

There are difference among these programs as well.  Some LB programs are specifically designed for children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), such as Autism or Aspergers and are for severe disabilities marked by communication, social and cognitive delays. Other LB programs are for children with PDD that do not have cognitive delays.  The programs foster independence in communication and enable the learners socially, functionally and academically as they pursue the goal of inclusion.  Other LB classrooms focus on specific areas of language, such as reading and/or writing, and are more geared toward dyslexic students that are not cognitively impaired.  These programs will have intensive instruction in reading and writing, as well as oral communication.  Social workers, reading specialists, speech and language pathologists, psychologists, and occupational therapists may work with students in these programs.

Parents should ask about the types of students serviced in the program that has been recommended for their child.  Again, it is not best practice to mix cognitively impaired students with students that have learning disabilities but are not cognitively impaired.  If this is the case, be sure to schedule an observation of the classroom before agreeing to it for your child.  Ask for an outside placement if you do not think the academics are challenging enough for your child.

Learning Centers

Usually for middle and high school students, learning centers offer academic support for students that are partially or fully mainstreamed.  Tutoring, editing, review, study skills, and behavioral or emotional support are offered.  Some students spend a significant part of thier day in a learning center, while others spend only one period there.  Sometimes other specialists work in the learning center, such as the guidance counselor or a social worker.  Some learning centers provide life skills or vocational training to students.  Before placing your child in a learning center, find out about the program and what types of students it serves.